The Cultural World at the Time of Joyce’s “Ulysses” | cultural | Entertainment

The 20s of the last century have become a kind of legend in universal history, These are the years when new pleasures appear within everyone’s reach, cinema, radio, popular sports, dance halls and the automobile. but it is also the time of jazz and the Charleston, are the beginnings of women’s struggles for justification, like the right to vote, the use of short skirts and girls with short hair and how they compete with men for jobs.

‘Ulysses’, a work as marvelous as it is complicated. What do local authors think?

It is a revenge or a catharsis in the face of the horrors of the carnage of the First World War, it is the human being who rejected the death that occurred in the mud of the trenches.

In the world of art, new and daring forms emerge whose epicenter is the cities of Paris and Berlin, it is above all the City of Light where the greatest number of intellectuals gather, which makes it the capital culture of the world. There will be characters like Hemingway, James Joyce, Gertrude Stein, Man Ray, Francis Scott Fitzgerald, Pablo Picasso, among others.

Germany, although it is plunged into the chaos of defeat, is also the axis of a cinematographic current which would have a powerful influence throughout the world, expressionism manages to show the horror and the brutality of the human psyche, directors such as Murnau, Fritz Lang or Robert Wiene use cinema more as an art form than as entertainment.

This is the moment for the avant-garde theater of Max Reinhardt and Bertold Brechtwho create important productions in Berlin, Brecht’s dramaturgy disturbs the public with his violent attack on the corruption and hypocrisy of society, pointed out directly in his three-penny opera.

The 1920s had painting as its main protagonist, surrealism representing a real innovation in pictorial art, artists such as Salvador Dali Yes Max Ernst they used a realistic style to explore the grotesque situations of the subconscious, in their art there was an aura of nightmare. Surrealism would be a source of inspiration for other artists such as Pablo Picasso and director Luis Buñuel.

In this creative catharsis, new architectural visions are born from the Bauhaus school of Walter Gropius, famous for breaking down the barriers between art and science and applying engineering techniques to design. This school was responsible for the functional style that became characteristic of buildings in large German cities and later in the rest of Europe.

Literature at the time of the birth of ‘Odysseus’

James Joyce, DH Lawrence, Virginia Wolf.

In the 1920s, literature was one of the many forms of entertainment available to the public. Poetry was not as popular as the novel and after the end of World War I writers realized that the world had changed, events like the Russian Revolution, the radicalization of the working class in Europe, the rise of fascism and the social and economic crisis. crisis that has devastated Europe has given a new perspective to the creative part. Literature was part of these radical changes, it was the time of so-called rebellious writers who sought to escape from the traditional narrative form in search of completely different styles. It is a period remarkable for the number of authors who break with traditional writing.

‘Ulysses’, by James Joyce, the most important contribution made to fiction literature in the 20th century, turns a century

Within this group of authors and with different ways of approaching their stories, to stand out Marcel Proust, James Joyce, Virginia Wolf, Gertrude Stein, Franz Kafka, DH Lawrence, Sinclair Lewis, Hemingway, Scott Fitzgerald. For many of these authors, conventional narrative novels that sought only a total concentration on description were not at all satisfactory, for them the most important was the feelings and especially to explore the world of the subconscious, they sought to reject linear stories and conventional characters, they also wanted to free the novel from societal restrictions on foul language and the portrayal of sex.

These are the authors who set a revolutionary precedent in the world of letters.

The letters in Ecuador in the decade that appears the ‘Ulysses’

Luis A. Martinez, Pablo Palacio, Aurora Estrada.

Ecuador in the 1920s, when the Ulises of Joyce, saw his own literary approach, from 1922, The country is immersed in a phase of transition, particularly in poetry and the novel.

In lyric poetry, the first generation of the so-called “decapitated generation”, representatives of modernism, had disappeared, their representatives Arturo Borja, Medardo Angel Silva, Humberto Fierro and Ernesto Noboa they died or stopped writing. A new range of poets took the job, but they decided not to tiptoe with the postulates of modernism, authors like Alfonso Moreno, José María Egas, Hugo Mayo, Pablo Hannibal Vela, Wenceslao Pareja, Aurora Estrada, Mary Corile and Remigio Cordero. These marked the period that many critics have labeled neomodernism.

One Hundred Years of Ulysses by Joyce

In the field of the novel, the change is more profound, in the 1920s, social realism begins to develop with more momentum and the first sketches of the indigenist current are given with novels such as silver and bronze, of Fernando Chavez, published 1927; the work was considered by Benjamín Carrión as a first milestone, the beginning of the Ecuadorian novel with indigenous characters. To follow the initial step of Chávez’s novel, it is necessary to take as a reference Towards the coast, of Louis Martinez.

The cultivators of this realist current are also found among authors who were taking their first steps in literature, in the case of Sergio Nunez, Leopoldo Benites, among the most prominent.

And it is necessary to underline an author who would stand out from the tendencies, an unclassifiable, as was Paul’s Palacethe year 1927 is fundamental, since Palacio publishes his first work, A man beaten to death collection of stories with audacious content and a strong dose of irony.

Another work is the short novel Deborah, to which Benjamin Carrion I would dedicate the following review: “A developed, schematic and sterilized book”. And I would use the words that Jung said about Ulises by Joyce, “whose tonality is the melancholy of abstract objectivity”.

Carrión, in one of his reviews years later, will say that there are many shadows over which the authors exerted an influence on Palacio, but he does not hesitate to mention Proust, Lawrence and especially Joyce.

These authors and others with their works also explain and pave the way for the great emergence that would come on a literary level in the 1930s. (YO)

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