- Reveals that the Mexican electoral model has managed to become an international benchmark: Lorenzo Córdova Vianello
The National Electoral Institute (INE) presented the National Report 2020: The Course of Democracy in Mexicoproduced in collaboration with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), which is a diagnosis of the current state of democracy in Mexico.
As part of the presentation, the President of INE, Lorenzo Córdova Vianello, argued that the 2020 National Report reveals that the Mexican electoral model “has managed to become, no matter who it weighs, an international benchmark, because its design guarantees equality in the exercise of suffrage.
“While building trust in the institutions of democracy always has areas for improvement and always needs improvement, society trusts its electoral system, as the national report reveals, far more than in other areas of public life and that in other political actors”, he defended.
The 2020 national report, Córdova said, will be a reference text for all those who wish to understand and explain the foundations of society’s distrust of its authorities; the disengagement of legislators and their parties from society, as well as the widespread rejection that citizens generally express towards the administration of justice. In addition, he claimed collaboration between constitutionally autonomous institutions such as INE and the National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI).
ENCUCI: main contribution of the 2020 Country Report
In his speech, the Director of Electoral Training and Civic Education of INE, Roberto Heycher Cardiel, explained that the results of the National Civic Culture Survey (ENCUCI) 2020, carried out with INEGI, constitute the main contribution of the Country 2020 Report and are part of the National Catalog of Indicators, useful for the evaluation of public policies.
“Providing quality public information is one of the key aspects of democratic resilience. The dissemination of socially useful information contributes to the creation of an environment conducive to the use of collective intelligence and to the broadening of the horizons that arise from the free discussion of ideas”, underlined Cardiel.
2020 country report reveals less disenchantment with democracy in Mexico
The Deputy Resident Representative of the United Nations Development Program in Mexico, Sandra Sosa, highlighted that the 2020 national report gives in-depth interpretation, meaning and narrative to ENCUCI data, providing a solid theoretical framework, the comparison with various national and international surveys and with the 2014 national report.
Among the findings of the 2020 national report, Sosa pointed out that citizens are now less disenchanted with democracy, compared to 2014, “although of course there are issues that still need to be addressed, such as the mistrust that exists in effectiveness of participatory mechanisms,” he added.
The report is a clear example of INE-INEGI inter-institutional collaboration
INEGI’s Deputy Director General for Development, Analysis and Indicators, Alejandra Ríos Cázares, highlighted that the 2020 National Report is a clear example of the good results that can be achieved through collaboration in two directions: inter-institutional between two constitutionally autonomous bodies such as INE and INEGI and the rigor of the methodologically sound instrument.
INE and INEGI, famous Ríos Cázares, joined their efforts and andxpertiz to obtain a broad and rigorous collection instrument that allowed to generate important inferences on the civic and political participation of Mexican citizens, allowed to generate information on perceptions, values and practices related to the exercise of rights of citizens and also on the factors that affect the construction of full citizenship.
The 2020 country report is part of a broad vision of democracy
In her speech, the co-author of Country Report 2020 and professor-researcher at El Colegio de México, María Fernanda Somuano Ventura, recalled that Country Report 2014 revealed that the political culture of Mexicans is marked by distrust of authority. , disenchantment with Democracy and social disengagement.
“In this new report, we start from a broad vision of democracy to analyze its current state and thus recognize, as various authors have done, the great distance that exists between democratic ideals and real democracy,” said Somuano.
They deliberate on the conclusions of the Country Report 2020
The deliberation committee then took place: Challenges of civic culture in Mexico, main findings of the 2020 national report, in which director Martín Faz Mora participated; the co-author of the 2020 national report and UNAM researcher, Karolina Monika Gilas; the academic of the Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences, Nicolás Loza Otero; and the academic specializing in political culture at UNAM, Rosa María Mirón.
The panel was moderated by INEGI’s Deputy Director General for Development, Analysis and Indicators, Alejandra Ríos Cázares.
Necessary to move towards a daily conception of civic culture
Among the challenges facing civic culture in Mexico today, included in the 2020 National Report, Councilor Martín Faz highlighted that “any assessment of the state of democracy and citizenship must take into account the context, which in the Mexican case is characterized by enormous structural and historical inequalities in social, economic, political, cultural and gender matters”.
In this context, Faz warned, there is a permanent tension between dissatisfaction with the results of democracy as a system with a conviction, sometimes more, sometimes less, that only democracy “can allow us to move towards a more just and egalitarian. In this sense, he called for an evolution towards a conception of civic culture that makes it possible to articulate the exercise of fundamental rights with the daily life of citizens.
The 2020 Country Report can be consulted in its digital version at the following link: https://www.ine.mx/wp-content/uploads/2022/09/deceyec-informe-pais-2020.pdf.
Main findings of the 2020 national report
To carry out this study, a group of eminent specialists reviewed the central aspects which affect the quality of democracy and which go beyond elections, such as representation, participation and the exercise of democratic values. .
The 2020 National Report demonstrates the appreciation that citizens have of INE, as it is rated as the civil institution in which people aged 15 and over trust the most. 59.6% say they have some degree of trust in the INE, a significant increase from the 33.9% who thought the same in 2013 of the Federal Electoral Institute (IFE), according to the National Survey on the Quality of Citizenship.
However, trust in the institutions that must serve as transmission belts for the interests of citizens, political parties and federal deputies remains, as already specified in 2013, at low levels. Less than one in four express confidence in political parties, legislators in the Chamber of Deputies.
The 2020 National Report illustrates some of the challenges of consolidating democracy from public opinion. Although nearly two out of three Mexicans aged 15 and older prefer democracy to any other form of government, 40.1% would agree with a military-led government.
The degree to which citizens feel represented by elected authorities, as analyzed in the book, is perhaps the greatest weakness of Mexican democracy. The institution that best represents citizens according to ENCUCI 2020 is the Presidency of the Republic, even if it remains limited. To reverse the limited level of democratic values in society and improve the quality of democracy, it is essential that citizens feel better represented and that legislative activity can respond to the main problems of Mexican society.
Another of the substantial conclusions is that the appreciation that Mexican citizens have of their democracy is not identical between the groups. The degree of participation, representation and satisfaction with democracy is affected by people’s particular circumstances.
The 2020 national report shows that one of the most important is gender: women and men exercise their citizenship in different ways. Although labor data shows that women have achieved significant spaces of representation, these have not yet been sufficient to reverse the situations of systemic inequality that allow Mexico to have full and equal participation among all. It is only by reducing the gap between men and women that we can increase the satisfaction of the population with regard to the daily democracy experienced in Mexico.
With the publication of the 2020 Country Report, the INE confirms its commitment to generating information and knowledge on political culture for the construction of citizenship and the democratic development of our country.
The national event presenting this work constitutes a first approximation allowing actors from different fields to come together to discuss the content of the Report and establish a dialogue with civil society. With this, INE promotes the construction of joint measures and solutions to strengthen civic culture and, therefore, democracy in Mexico.